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In the meantime, to ensure continued support, we are displaying the site without styles and JavaScript. Recent studies have shown that NAGK has an essential structural, non-enzymatic role in the upregulation of dendritogenesis. Finally, the ectopic introduction of a small peptide derived from the C-terminal amino acids 74—96 of DYNLRB1 resulted in the stunting of hippocampal neuron dendrites in culture. Early ina non-canonical effect for NAGK on dendritic arborization was reported.

This suggests that the small domain of NAGK binds and sequesters a key component that mediates dendritogenesis. In this study, we performed yeast two-hybrid screening to search for NAGK-interacting proteins. Among several potential candidates, dynein light-chain roadblock type 1 DYNLRB1a component of cytoplasmic dynein complex, draws our attention because a very similar phenomenon has been reported in neurons expressing mutant dynein.

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We performed immunocytochemistry ICC and proximity ligation assays PLA and found that an interaction occurs in the cytoplasm of neuronal and non-neuronal cells and on MT fibers at dendritic branches in neurons. The following antibodies were used at the indicated dilutions unless otherwise indicated: After the hybridization and ligation of the DNA oligonucleotides, an amplification solution along with polymerase was added, which resulted in rolling circle amplification reaction.

The amplified product was detected by using complimentary fluorescently labeled oligonucleotides. Digital images were processed with Adobe Systems Photoshop 7.

Library plasmids from positive colonies were isolated and rescued using an E. Library inserts were then amplified by See more and analyzed by restriction enzyme digestion.

After isolation of the plasmids encoding the library clones, these plasmids were tested for interactions of the reporter gene yeast by retransformation. The activation of the reporter genes in the positive colonies was confirmed in the same experiments.

Because it has been shown previously 14 that the small domain of NAGK plays a critical role in dendritogenesis, we used the small domain as bait in a yeast two-hybrid screen.

The NAGK-interacting proteins, which were screened at multiple times with the yeast two-hybrid system, are shown in Figure 1a.

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N -acetylglucosamine kinase-binding proteins. The two positive clones in the yeast two-hybrid selection having a coding region from 3 or 59 to the C-terminal end are also shown.

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Full length dynein light-chain roadblock type 1 1-end and kinesin light chain 1 were used as a positive and a negative control, respectively. However, the addition of DSP did not increase the ratio of colocalization, indicating that this colocalization was fortuitous due to the dense distribution of the two proteins on MT fibers.

These results suggest that NAGK interacts transiently with dynein complexes. Immunocytochemistry showing the colocalization of N -acetylglucosamine kinase with dynein light-chain roadblock type 1. Primary antibodies were visualized by using goat secondary antibodies conjugated to Alexa N -acetylglucosamine kinase, green or Alexa dynein light-chain roadblock type 1 or dynein heavy chain or kinesin5B, red fluorochromes.

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The boxed areas of the merged images are enlarged at the bottom. Colocalized immunopuncta are Chicago Dating Service Matchmaking Duodenum Function by arrowheads. We conducted in situ PLA to further confirm the direct interaction between the NAGK and dynein complexes in both neuronal and non-neuronal cells. In contrast to the dense distribution and a considerable amount of colocalization ratio of NAGK and dynein complex, there appeared much lower PLA signals.

However, the longer the dendrites grow, the greater the number of PLA dots that are found in a single neuron. The negative control, where primary antibody was not added, showed no PLA signals data not shown. These results clearly show an interaction between NAGK and dynein complex. Proximity ligation assay showing an interaction between N -acetylglucosamine kinase and the dynein complex.

The proximity ligation assay was followed by immunocytochemistry using a mouse anti-tubulin antibody green. Boxed areas are enlarged insets to show the colocalization of the N -acetylglucosamine kinase-dynein complex with thinner microtubule fibers arrowheads.

To obtain a better view of proximity ligation assay signals, phase-contrast images were inverted using Photoshop software. Red dots represent the interaction between N -acetylglucosamine kinase and dynein. To better depict proximity ligation assay puncta, phase-contrast images were inverted using Photoshop software.

These results strongly suggest that NAGK localizes to MT fibers, further supporting the possibility of being a part of the dynein motor complex. The colocalization of N -acetylglucosamine kinase with tubulin confirms that N -acetylglucosamine kinase-dynein complex locates on microtubule fibers.

Primary antibodies were visualized using here secondary antibodies conjugated with Alexa tubulin, green or Alexa N -acetylglucosamine kinase, red fluorochromes. The right side shows the merging of two images, and a growth cone boxed area is enlarged at the bottom. Examples of N -acetylglucosamine kinase puncta on microtubules are indicated by arrowheads.

Typical multipolar neurons, such as hippocampal pyramidal neurons, develop axons and dendrites in a stereotypical process that Chicago Dating Service Matchmaking Duodenum Function with a round-shaped precursor.

Because NAGK has a critical role in dendritogenesis, 1214 the positioning of NAGK-dynein complexes at neuronal subcellular sites could be important for their function. Local areas containing PLA puncta were enlarged and are shown in Figure 5bwhere the localization of PLA dots at the initiation points of primary dendrites and at the initiation sites of branches is evident. We observed that some PLA dots were located at established branch joints with MTs in check this out neonate branch Figure 5bupper panelwhile others missed MTs Figure 5blower panel.

Statistical analysis showed that about half of the PLA puncta in dendrites were localized to branch points. These phenomena suggest that the NAGK-dynein interaction has a role at dendritic branch points.

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N -acetylglucosamine kinase-dynein interactions occur at dendritic branch points. The proximity ligation assay puncta red are indicated by arrowheads and with numbers.

Proximity ligation assay puncta were sorted into two categories: Positions of branches are indicated with arrowheads.

Percentages of N -acetylglucosamine kinase-dynein heavy chain proximity ligation assay puncta at branch joints with or without Chicago Dating Service Matchmaking Duodenum Function in neonate protrusions are shown by a pie chart. In the soma, TGN38 staining was observed as a large cluster with some small dispersed signals, whereas NAGK-dynein PLA signals were located at the somal periphery facing the dendrite joint Figure 6ainset 1, arrows.

Golgi outposts were also colocalized with the NAGK-dynein complex at the dendritic distension Figure 6b where new dendritic branches were protruding Figure 6barrows. Colocalization of N -acetylglucosamine kinase-dynein complexes with Here outposts on dendritic branch points.

N -acetylglucosamine kinase-dynein heavy chain proximity ligation assay was performed in hippocampal neurons developmental stage IV and was followed by immunocytochemistry with an anti-TGN38 antibody to mark Golgi particles. Small branches protruding out of the distensions are marked with arrows.

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Dendritic distensions boxed areas 1, 2 are enlarged insets to show the colocalization of N -acetylglucosamine kinase-dynein complex red with Golgi particles green marked by arrowheads. Together, these results strongly support a three-way interaction of NAGK-dynein-Golgi outpost at dendritic branch points. Co-localization of N -acetylglucosamine kinase-Golgi complexes with dynein light-chain roadblock type 1 on microtubule at dendritic branch points.

Images for proximity ligation assay signals are inverted to better show proximity ligation assay puncta marked with red arrowheads. The positions of proximity ligation assay signals at branch points are marked with numbers and enlarged in insets. The proximity ligation assay puncta in the soma box i Chicago Dating Service Matchmaking Duodenum Function enlarged to show that proximity ligation assay signals facing the apical dendrite at the somal Golgi apparatus merged with dynein light-chain roadblock type 1 signals.

Proximity ligation assay dot positions red in dendrites are enlarged for better visualization box ii, 1—3. In both cases, neurons had long and apparently intact axons Figure 8aarrowheadwhich confirmed that the DYNLRB1 74—96 peptide resulted in dendritic but not axonal degeneration.

This phenomenon is very similar to the phenotype that results from NAGK knockdown or the dominant-negative expression of its small domain. Transfection with a small peptide from dynein light-chain roadblock type 1 induced dendritic degeneration. In contrast, neurons transfected with DYNLRB1 74—96 peptide showed short, stunted dendrites arrowswhile the axon arrowhead was apparently unaffected. We also showed that the NAGK-dynein complex could be found at proximal visit web page distal branch points that contained Golgi outposts.

Every protein interaction is assumed to be an integrated part of a larger network and to be critical for cellular signal transduction processes.

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NAGK is an essential enzyme for amino sugar metabolism where it is involved in the salvage pathway for GlcNAc recycling. Indeed, Drosophilla melanogaster LC7-null mutants exhibit phenotypes including defects in dendrite growth, axonal transport and neuroblast cell division.

DYNLRB1 acts as one of several non-catalytic accessory components that could link dynein to cargos and to adapter proteins that regulate dynein function. Our present study supports the hypothesis that this surface may be the site to which NAGK binds. First, our yeast two-hybrid assay showed that the 59—96 amino acid region, which encompasses this hole, interacts with the small domain of NAGK.

The shortened dendrites and apparently intact axons are characteristic features that are very similar to the morphology observed following NAGK knockdown.

The question remains Chicago Dating Service Matchmaking Duodenum Function to how NAGK, as part of continue reading dynein complex, regulates dendritic arborization.

Eukaryotic cells use cytoskeletal motor proteins to transport many different intracellular cargos. Two different mechanisms have been evolved to cope with the diverse cargos that are transported on MTs. Numerous kinesins have evolved to facilitate positive-end transport on MTs.

In contrast, a single cytoplasmic dynein serves the minus end-directed transport for similarly diverse cargos. This could be achieved by employing adaptors that link dynein to diverse cargos see review by Kardon and Vale. In mammalian neurons, the Golgi apparatus is present as Golgi stacks in the cell body and discrete Golgi outposts in the branch points of dendrites.

In this study, we have shown a tripartite interaction of NAGK-dynein-Golgi on the MTs in both the soma and dendritic branch points, suggesting that NAGK has a role in the regulation of Golgi transport by the dynein motor.

This raises a question as to the function of NAGK-dynein complex at a dendritic branch points. During early neuronal development in culture, MT fibers are Chicago Dating Service Matchmaking Duodenum Function in the distended regions of dendritic shafts. In addition, that study also showed that the directional movements of dendritic Golgi outposts correlate with the extension and retraction of dendritic branches. These results provide strong evidence that local dendritic branching and growth is controlled, in part, by the dynamics and abundance of dendritic Golgi outposts.

The association of NAGK-dynein complexes with Golgi outposts suggests that the complex has a role in directional Golgi dynamics and MT nucleation toward the neonate protrusions. Our findings shed light on the interactions of NAGK with dynein and Golgi outposts and their roles in dendritic growth. Further investigation is needed into the molecular mechanisms underlying these interactions. Annu Rev Biophys Biomol Struct ;